Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Evidence indicates that sexual assertiveness is one of the important factors affecting sexual satisfaction. This study examined the relationship between gender roles and sexual assertiveness in married women in Mashhad, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on women who referred to Mashhad health centers through convenient sampling in The mean scores of sexual assertiveness was Based on thesexual assertiveness in married women does not comply with gender role, but it is related to Sexual function satisfaction.
So, counseling psychologists need to consider this variable when deing intervention programs for modifying sexual assertiveness and find other variables that affect sexual assertiveness. Healthy sexual function is a of physical and mental health and a life quality factor that creates a sense of shared pleasure in couples and increases their capability in coping with stress and life problems effectively.
One of the most influential factors in this regard is sexual assertiveness. This allows them to experience a more pleasurable sex. Despite the importance of this issue in many societies including Iran, the majority of women have difficulty expressing their sexual desires and needs, and maintaining their autonomy in sexual relationship, and suffer from low self-esteem. There are several factors influencing the formation of sexual interactions in people and probably their sexual assertiveness. According Women want sex Chestnut Hill some researchers, one of many reasons for the lack of sexual tendency or desire in women is their difficult and strict gender roles, 14 which consist of behaviors, attitudes, and personal traits that are considered more appropriate and common for women and men in the society.
The gender-related concepts and processes affect behaviors, thoughts, and feelings of an individual as well as interpersonal interactions, and contribute to determination of social structures, and eventually perpetuate gender differences. There are several theories explaining the gender role or what is called femininity and masculinity. In this model, the masculine personality belongs to men or women who obtain a high score in masculinity and a low score in femininity.
In other words, they exhibit more masculine behaviors and possess more masculine traits. The feminine personality also belongs to men or women who show more feminine behaviors and have more feminine traits. According to Bemindividuals who possess a high degree of both masculine and feminine traits are categorized as androgynous, which is the most adaptive gender feature.
Moreover, individuals who manifest a decrement in both masculine and feminine traits are categorized as undifferentiated in this model. The relationship of gender role with some dimensions of sexual behavior has been investigated. For example, in a study, it was shown that the gender role schema affects sexual satisfaction in women, but not men.
In fact, sexual dissatisfaction increased by having only feminine gender role schema. Although the majority of studies into sexual assertiveness suggest lower score of women in this regard, this gender-role induced difference has been less investigated and the findings available are conflicting. For example, one study has shown no ificant relationship between gender role adaptation with sexual assertiveness in men and women. In addition, since many researchers believe that the effect of social developments on gender role changes, identification of the sexual assertiveness difference in women who are affected by social changes, and who have gender adaptive tendencies is ificant.
This was a cross-sectional study conducted among women who referred to health centers of Mashhad, Iran during November to July The sample size was estimated as Women want sex Chestnut Hill according to a pilot study using the following formula:. The sample size was determined based on both correlation coefficients and the largest was considered as the final sample size. Sampling was conducted via multi-stage sampling from all the health centers of Mashhad.
Firstly, each of five mother health care centers No. Then, with regard to the of urban health care centers covered by each mother health care center, 10 health care centers were selected through lotto draw and considered as a cluster. Next, based on the of clients referring to family planning units, the related portion was determined.
The participants were selected from the family planning unit in each health center by using convenient sampling, if they met the inclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria were 1 Iranian nationality, 2 aged between 15 and 49, 3 literacy the minimumand 4 living with the spouse at least one year.
Individuals were excluded if they or their husband had a sexual disorder, according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria, had a chronic disease, were infertile, had a history of psychological disorders according to participants, being pregnant or menopause, had the experience of psychological crisis during the past three months and used drugs that affected sexual desire.
After explaining the study objectives and giving informed consent, the participants were interviewed privately to evaluate the inclusion and exclusion criteria by a psychologist who was one of the researchers. Then, the questionnaire related to demographic and marital characteristics, Bem Sex Role Inventory BSRI and Hulbert index of sexual assertiveness were given to eligible individuals.
Content validity was used to determine the validity of this scale. The BSRI includes 20 masculine personality traits, 20 feminine personality traits, and 20 neutral traits Bem, Response choices range from 1 never or almost never true to 7 always or almost always true. Bem classified responses as masculine, feminine, androgynous and undifferentiated. First, median score of masculinity and femininity was calculated.
Respondents who are higher than the median in both masculinity and femininity scale are classified as androgynous; individuals who are high masculinity and low femininity are masculine, and females who are low Women want sex Chestnut Hill and high femininity are feminine; individuals low in both are classified as undifferentiated. Hulbert index of sexual assertiveness was compiled by Hulbert It is a item self-report measure using a 5-point Likert scale response format with options that range from 0 always to 4 Never. The scores ranged from 0 to A higher score indicated more sexual assertiveness.
In order to analyze demographic and marital data, descriptive statistics including frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations were used. Also, a one-way ANOVA test was used for the comparison of sexual assertiveness scores in gender role types.
The ificance level was considered less than 0. The purpose of the study was explained to every participant verbally.
Moreover, a written and oral informed consent to participate in this study was obtained from each participant who agreed to complete the tools and attend the sessions. There were a total of participants who completed the survey. The mean age of women and their spouses was Also, the mean duration of marriage was 6.
And the mean scores of marital and Sexual function satisfaction were also 4. Table 1 reveals the demographic characteristics of subjects. Additionally, descriptive statistics showed that the mean scores of gender femininity and masculinity were 5. Findings also showed that 51 The Correlation Matrix of background characteristics, gender role and sexual assertiveness.
Linear Regression Analysis was performed in two stages.
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However, the other four predictor variables did not contribute ificantly to the prediction of Sexual assertiveness of the women. In the second model, Femininity and masculinity scores were entered.
But these two variables did not contribute ificantly in the model. Linear Regression Analysis predicting Sexual assertiveness with femininity and masculinity scores and covariates. In addition, One-way ANOVA was used to investigate the difference of sexual assertiveness between gender-role type groups.
This study intended to determine the relationship of gender role with sexual assertiveness in married women in Mashhad. The mean score of sexual assertiveness in this study was higher than that reported in another study into married educated women in Northern Iran, and two other studies into married women in Tehran. This may be due to the difference in participants. Although all subjects in study of Chestnut Hill College were heterosexual women aged 18 years and above with only one sexual partner at the time of study, the majority of them were in a non-married, non-cohabitating relationship.
In fact, this finding may reflect the dominant culture in the US, in which women are encouraged to express their sexual needs and assure that their sexual needs are met. In the field of sexual interactions, culture has several impacts on thoughts, beliefs, and actions of both genders. On the other hand, of this study did not show any ificant relationship between gender roles and sexual assertiveness.
In other words, it seems that sexual assertiveness in women is not affected by their gender roles. In fact, since the dominant cultures in Iran and other traditional communities assume more passive roles for women in sexual relationship, they have low sexual assertiveness regardless of their dominant gender personality.
Lettenberger et al. In addition, sexual identity was incapable of predicting sexual assertiveness in such women.
Yet, these findings contradict those of other studies proving that feminine role makes them passive in sexual and romantic relations. This difference may be due to different characteristics of participants. For example, in a study, the research sample included international bachelor students from Asia, Africa, America, Latin America, and Arabian countries at a Midwestern university. These findings may imply that in marital relationships, there are other variables with greater impact on sexual assertiveness. According to the findings of this study, marital duration has an inverse negative correlation with sexual assertiveness in women.
In contrast to the findings of this study, Auslander did not find any ificant correlation between the duration of relationship and sexual assertiveness. This, however, can be attributed to the subjects young girls with mean age of Similar to the findings of this study, Auslander did not find any ificant correlation between body image of women and their demand for initiation or refusal of unwanted sexual relationship. of another study also showed that women who have greater satisfaction with sexual relationship and performance tend more to initiate a sexual activity.
The sense of satisfaction with sexual relationship may lead to a commitment that is a better predictor of sexual assertiveness as compared to gender attitudes.
Yet, the variables investigated in this study were only capable of predicting a quarter of the variance of sexual assertiveness in women. It means that the majority of the score of this index can be explained by uninvestigated variables. In conclusion, further studies are required for the rejection or confirmation of these as well as for the identification of other factors affecting sexual assertiveness in Iranian women.