Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Conceived and deed the experiments: ALO. Analyzed the data: ALO. Wrote the paper: ALO. We described PA patterns in the various domains home, school, transport, leisure-time and intensity light-intensity PA, moderate- to vigorous- intensity physical activity [MVPA] and total PAand their associations with sociodemographic factors and socioeconomic status SES among secondary school adolescents in Nigeria.
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A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a representative sample of secondary school adolescents 12—18 years, These findings have important public health implications for identifying subgroups of Nigerian adolescents that should be targeted for effective physical activity promoting interventions. Sufficient physical activity is associated with substantial health benefits in young people that can track into adulthood [ 1 — 4 ].
Yet, an astounding majority of adolescents in both the developed and developing countries [ 56 ] do not meet the health related guidelines of engaging in at least 60 minutes of moderate-to vigorous- physical activity MVPA daily [ 34 ]. However, no study was found that provided estimates Date girls in Wakawa the proportion of Nigerian youth meeting the health-related recommended guidelines for sufficient levels of physical activity, and there is no data on the patterns and domains of physical activity among adolescents and children in Nigeria [ 10 ].
Because adolescents can be active in different domains at home, at school, during transport and leisure timeidentifying the contexts where physical activity take place could provide useful information for effective physical activity promotion in this age group [ 21 — 23 ]. Addressing this knowledge gap remains a top research priority for low- and middle income- countries LMICs where the understanding of evidence-based strategies for increasing physical activity is poor [ 24 — 27 ]. Moreover, such evidence could broaden the options for physical activity intervention programmes and contribute to public health efforts to control the rising mortality and morbidity of non-communicable diseases NCDs now occurring in many African countries [ 28 — 30 ].
With an estimated population of about Thus, availability of baseline national or subnational data on physical activity patterns and associated factors in adolescents could be considered an urgent public health issue for Nigeria.
Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe the patterns in specific domains home, school, transport, leisure time and intensity light-physical activity, moderate-physical activity and vigorous-physical activity of self-reported physical activity in a subnational sample of secondary school adolescents in Maiduguri, Nigeria. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study in a subnational sample of secondary school adolescents in Nigeria.
Briefly, multistage sampling technique was used to select participants from secondary schools stratified by area level income of their neighborhood location high-income and low-income schools and by school types public and private schools stage 1. In the second stage of sampling, one or two classes of about 45 students were randomly selected lottery method each from the second to the sixth grade in 11 selected secondary schools 5 private and 6 public schools.
Thereafter, 20 students were randomly recruited through ballot from each of the selected classes 70 classes in total.
All students in the 2 nd to 6 th grade of study and aged between 12 and 18 years were eligible to participate in the survey. Study questionnaires were filled out anonymously by the adolescents while in the classroom.
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In total, adolescents The study has been conducted in accordance to the principles expressed in the declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments. Written assent and written informed consent were respectively, obtained from all the participants and their parents through a cover letter distributed few days prior to questionnaire administration.
On the test date, participants were informed that they could withdraw their assent or parental consent anytime if they were no longer interested in participating in the study or changed their mind. Adaptation made was addition of examples of various intensities of activity and physical activity behaviours that are common among adolescents in Nigeria to those already on the original questionnaire.
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The AQuAA assessed physical activity done in the last 7 days in the domains of school, household, leisure time including sportactive transportation to and from school and sedentary behaviours in leisure time. It estimated the time spent on light, moderate and vigorous intensity activities in terms of frequency days per week and duration minutes per day in each of the physical activity domain, except for active transportation.
A short sociodemographic form was used to obtain information on age, gender, household ownership of cars, grade of study and parental educational and occupation level. Household ownership of cars was categorized into none or one or more cars in household. Parental educational status was classified 0—3 as no education, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education, for both father and mother.
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Family SES was computed by summing the scores for parental education and occupation to produce a composite scale 0—16 which was further categorized into three groups as low 0—7middle 8—10 and high 11—16 Family SES [ 41 ]. The height and weight of all the participants were measured before administering the questionnaire, following standardized procedure.
The weight recorded to nearest 0. International age- and gender specific cut-points were used to assess BMI category underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese [ 4243 ]. All analyses were conducted in SPSS School-based physical activity was truncated for fifty-six participants, home-based physical activity for thirty-eight, light-intensity physical activity for twenty-one, moderate-intensity physical activity for three and total physical activity for thirty-four participants. No truncation was done for any participant on transportation-related physical activity, leisure-time physical activity and vigorous-intensity physical activity.
Raw data were used to calculate the descriptive statistics mean, standard deviation, median and interquartile range of the physical activity scores in the different domains and intensity levels for the total sample, gender groups, ageweight statushousehold car ownerships and family SES shown in the Result section and Tables.
A repeated-measure ANOVA was conducted each to compare the different domain scores school, home transport, leisure time and the different intensity scores light-physical activity, moderate-physical activity, vigorous-physical activity, MVPA, total PA in the total sample. Multivariate ANOVA was conducted to explore the associations between physical activity scores domains and intensity levels and each of the independent variables gender, age groups, weight status, household car ownership and family SES. When between-subjects tests were ificant, additional Turkey post hoc were conducted to track the differences in physical activity scores between subgroups.
The participants comprised of adolescents The majority of the adolescents reported household ownership of one or more cars Boys were more physically active than girls to meet the MVPA recommendations Age was ificantly associated with moderate-intensity and total physical activity. However, partly consistent with our findings, participation in physical education activities at school was a frequently reported physical activity context by majority of rural youth in South Africa [ 4546 ]. It seems the promotion of extramural activities and provision of sports facilities and equipment at schools could be a viable approach to improve physical activity behaviours of school going adolescents in Africa.
In contrast to our findings of least physical activity in the contexts of leisure-time and active transportation, South African adolescents reported higher sport participation at leisure and spent more time in active transportation to and from school [ 45 ].
The difference in these findings may be due to the fact that the South African study was among rural adolescents who have little or no restriction to engage in active play at leisure-time and may have no choice rather than using active transport to and from school [ 45 ]. For urban population adolescents as in our study, the effects of urbanization may restrict the choice of active- leisure play and could favour more motorized mode of transportation to and from school [ 1415 ].
All these taken together confirm the shifting patterns of physical activity in Africa from a more traditionally energy dependent to a more energy saving one, and support the emerging evidence of an ongoing physical activity transition in Africa [ 14 Date girls in Wakawa 16 ]. Although youth in Africa may engage in large volumes of light and incidental moderate-intensity physical activity during domestic activities and active transportation [ 121618 ], multiple studies have consistently reported majority of adolescents in Africa to be insufficiently active to meet the MVPA recommendations [ 616 — 20 ].
Perhaps, the global physical activity recommendations that focus exclusively on MVPA may be misguided for adolescents in low resource settings of Africa [ 48 ]. Compared to youth in western high income countries [ 4950 ], African youth could fail to meet the international physical activity guidelines because of accumulating lower MVPA but they could be more physically active total volumes of physical activity because of the very high volumes of light-intensity physical activity they accumulate daily [ 18 ].
Because light intensity activity is common among African youth [ 12171851 ], offers substantially more daily opportunities for physical activity engagement than the other activity intensities [ 52 ] and could be potentially related to health outcomes [ 53 ], there is need to reconsider Date girls in Wakawa applicability of the current global guidelines to African youth. Contributing to the development of appropriate guidelines for African youth, future studies could focus on quantifying the health-related dosage or benefits of the relatively large volumes of light intensity physical activity common among African adolescents.
Although some contrasting African findings exist on gender and age differences girls more active than boys, and older adolescents more active than younger ones [ 111719 ], preponderance of African studies support our findings that girls tend to be less active than boys, and that for both boys and girls there is a consistent physical activity decline with increasing age [ 6912 — 1418204551 ].
Moreover, our findings provide extra insights into the patterns of physical activity behaviours between girls and boys.
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While Nigerian adolescent girls would spend more time than boys in domestic and light-intensity physical activities, boys would spend more time in leisure-time and vigorous-intensity activities than girls. In contrast to some studies from western high income countries showing underweight adolescents were less likely to be physically active [ 2254 ], underweight adolescents in our study were more active at leisure-time than their normal weight and obese counterparts, engaged in more moderate-intensity activity than overweight adolescents, and accumulated more total physical activity than obese adolescents.
However, consistent with other studies showing differences in physical activity between normal weight and overweight adolescents [ 4455 ], normal weight adolescents engaged in more moderate-intensity physical activity than overweight adolescents, and their total physical activity levels were higher than those for the obese adolescents. Perhaps, the use of prospective longitudinal de by future Africa studies could better help explain the potential associations of physical activity patterns and body weight status in African adolescents.
Consistent with the from other studies [ 5454656 ], our Date girls in Wakawa indicate that higher family SES was associated with more leisure-time physical activity and moderate-to vigorous intensity activity but with less active transportation.
African adolescents from high SES family may have more financial leverage to engage in leisure time sporting activities and use motorized transportation to school compared to adolescents from low SES families who may have fewer opportunities to participate in formal sports but walk more out of no choice than their privileged peers [ 16 ]. Thus, it may be early to assume that lower SES is primarily associated with reduced moderate to vigorous physical activity among Nigerian adolescents. There are strengths and limitations to this study.
Also, the large representative sample of secondary school adolescents could enhance the generalization of to this population. However, stemming from the primary strength of the study is also a limitation. However, understanding the contexts of physical activity during the high school years is important to public health and can be helpful in deing interventions during adolescence [ 23 ]. Other limitations include the cross-sectional nature of the study that makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions of causality on the associations found. Also, the use of self-report measure might have introduced some measurement bias, recall problems and inaccurate estimates of physical activity intensities.
Objective measures of physical activity such as accelerometers or pedometers provide better estimates of total physical activity of different intensities. However, accelerometers or pedometers do not provide information on the type of activity done.
From a public health perspective, it is important to know the contexts in which physical activity occur in adolescents [ 2122 ]. Moreover, contextual data as reported in the present study provides a more comprehensive understanding of specific types of physical activity behaviours and robust opportunity for domain-specific modelled interventions [ 2360 ]. In conclusion, the present study showed that most secondary school adolescents in Nigeria were not meeting the international recommendations for sufficient physical activity, and that school-based physical activity and light intensity activity were the most prominent domain and intensity-category of self-reported physical activity, respectively in these adolescents.
Younger age, boys, high family SES and household car ownership were associated with more leisure-time physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and total physical activity, while high family SES and household car ownerships were associated with reduced active transportation to and from school.
We also thank all the students that participated in the study. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. PLoS One. Published online Feb Adewale L. Ishaku1 Jameela Oyekola3 Hajara D. Oyeyemi 1. Cornelius M. Hajara D. Adetoyeje Y. Herbert Yu, Editor.
Author information Article notes Copyright and information Disclaimer. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Received Dec 9; Accepted Feb 9.