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Travel health journal

Municipal and regional elections in Octoberhowever, were marred by four elections-related deaths and numerous irregularities during the campaign period and on election day. Special elections in December were also marred by violence and allegations of fraud, despite the ificant presence of security forces and international observers.

In August a cabinet reshuffle resulted in the division of functions ly managed by the Ministry of Interior and Security and the related establishment of a new Ministry of Security and Civil Protection and Ministry of Territorial Administration and Decentralization. Military police and the military tribunal are responsible for investigating and prosecuting alleged internal abuses perpetrated by members of the security services.

Civilian authorities at times did not maintain effective control over the security forces. ificant human rights issues included arbitrary killings by police; arbitrary detention by security forces; harsh prison conditions; politically motivated imprisonment; lack of independence of the judiciary; restrictions on free expression, press, and internet; impediments to the rights of peaceful assembly and association; crimes of violence against women and girls, which the government took little action to prosecute; crimes involving violence against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex LGBTI persons; and child labor.

The government did not always take steps to prosecute officials who committed abuses, whether in the security services or elsewhere in the government. There were reports the government or its agents committed arbitrary or unlawful killings. Eyewitnesses told human rights organizations police had attempted to extort money from the driver. After the death, an angry mob vandalized police headquarters in the town and burned motorcycles belonging to the gendarmerie.

The trial of six gendarmes accused of killing six civilians working for a funeral company after allegedly mistaking them for thieves in began in the Military Tribunal of Abidjan in July. Media reported the Military Tribunal sentenced the gendarmes to 20 years in prison each and dismissed them from the force. Judges issued a written decision in July.

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Both defendants were released from detention, but because the ICC permits the prosecution to appeal an acquittal, they remained in Europe subject to conditions, including restrictions on travel. In October the prosecutor of the ICC filed an appeal against the acquittal of both defendants and requested a declaration of a mistrial. The constitution and law prohibit such practices.

The government did not provide information regarding reports of abuse within prisons, or mechanisms to prevent or punish such abuses. Human rights organizations reported they were not aware of any torture, although some political parties alleged physical mistreatment of members of their parties prior to being taken into security force custody during the year. Prison authorities acknowledged abuse might happen and go unreported as prisoners fear reprisals. Prison conditions were harsh and unhealthy due to insufficient food, gross overcrowding, inadequate sanitary conditions, and lack of medical care.

Physical Conditions : The government acknowledged prison overpopulation was a problem and that existing facilities were insufficient to hold the total prison population of 19, The government reported it was working with international donors to build at least two new prisons.

Severe overcrowding continued in many prisons, sometimes in excess of 10 times the of persons for which a prison was built. In at least one prison, the inmates reportedly slept packed head-to-toe on the floor. Prisons mostly held men and women in separate prison wings, although in some situations, men and women were colocated. Some prisons held juveniles together with adults and often held pretrial detainees together with convicted prisoners. The children of female inmates frequently lived with their mothers in prison, although prisons accepted no responsibility for their care or feeding.

Inmate mothers occasionally received help from local and international nongovernmental organizations NGOs. There were generally no appropriate services for mentally ill inmates, and they were often held together with the general prison population. Some human rights organizations reported prominent prisoners or those who had been politically active had slightly better living conditions than other prisoners. Wealthier prisoners could buy food and other amenities, as well as hire staff to wash and iron their clothes, while poorer inmates did not receive sufficient food on a regular basis. The prison budgets generally did not increase with the of prisoners.

Families routinely supplemented rations if they lived close to the prison or detention center, bringing food from the outside during the four visiting days of the week. According to the government, each prison facility had a staffed medical clinic available 24 hours a day. Inmates must inform prison guards if they need medical attention, and guards escort prisoners to the Cote d’ivoire hotties seeking oral pleasures. Inmates with severe medical issues were transferred to an outside hospital. Prison guards also did a daily check by cell for health issues among the inmates. Human rights organizations reported, however, that large prisons generally had doctors, while medical care in smaller prisons was provided by nurses.

Those organizations further reported it was unclear whether prisoners had access to these medical professionals at all times. Prisoners sometimes slept without mattresses. Poor ventilation and high temperatures, exacerbated by overcrowding, remained problems in some prisons. While potable water generally was available in prisons and detention centers, water shortages were not uncommon. Within temporary detention facilities, physical abuse occurred, and unsanitary conditions persisted, including detainees living in close proximity to toilets.

The Cote d’ivoire hotties seeking oral pleasures limit for detention without charge, with a single renewal of 48 hours permitted, was often disrespected, with the average total time of detention being eight to nine days. Officials sometimes listed the date of detention as several days later than the actual date of arrest while conducting an investigation to conceal the length of time the prisoner was actually in temporary detention. Information on conditions at detention centers operated by the DST was not readily available for the year. Administration : Inmates may submit complaints of abuse to prison directors; however, the government was not aware of any such cases during the year.

Following complaints, some prisons improved hygiene and nutrition. Prison administrators continued to detain or release prisoners outside normal legal procedures. Authorities generally permitted visitors in prisons on visiting days. Human rights organizations reported sometimes having access to prisons when they formally requested such in advance.

Country reports on human rights practices: côte d’ivoire

At least one international and one local organization reported that they had not been granted access, despite multiple requests. The International Committee of the Red Cross noted the critical overcrowding of the main prison and its harmful consequences for the health and well-being of the prisoners. The constitution and law prohibit arbitrary arrest and detention, but both reportedly occurred. The DST and other authorities arbitrarily arrested and detained persons, often without charge.

They held many of these detainees briefly before releasing them or transferring them to prisons and other detention centers, but they detained others for lengthy periods. The limit of 48 hours pretrial detention by police was generally not enforced.

Although detainees have the right to challenge in court the lawfulness of their detention and to obtain release if found to have been unlawfully detained, this rarely occurred. Most detainees were unaware of this right and had limited access to public defenders.

An investigating magistrate can request pretrial detention for up to four months at a time by submitting a written justification to the national prosecutor. First-time offenders charged with minor offenses may be held for a maximum of five days after their initial hearing before the investigative magistrate. Repeat misdemeanor offenders and those accused of felonies may be held for six and 18 months, respectively. Police often arrested individuals and held them without charge beyond the legal limit.

While the law provides for informing detainees promptly of the charges against them, this did not always occur, especially in cases concerning state security or involving the DST. A bail system exists but was reportedly used solely at the discretion of the trial judge. Authorities generally allowed detainees to have access to lawyers, but in cases involving national security, authorities did not allow access to lawyers and family members. For other serious crimes, the government provided lawyers to those who could not afford them, but offenders charged with less serious offenses often had no lawyer.

Attorneys often refused to accept indigent client cases they were asked to take because they reportedly had difficulty being reimbursed by the government as prescribed by law. Arbitrary Arrest : The law does not sanction arbitrary arrest, but authorities reportedly used the practice. In September security forces arrested a prominent opposition political party official on charges of harboring at his secondary residence an Cote d’ivoire hotties seeking oral pleasures weapons cache comprising machetes and bullets, although the official himself had informed the security forces of their presence and the cache did not include firearms, nor was the official living at the residence where the cache was found.

The official was convicted and sentenced to five years in prison within five days of his arrest, a remarkably short time. Pretrial Detention : According to officials, 6, inmates were in pretrial detention, more than 30 percent of the total inmate population. Prolonged pretrial detention was a major problem.

In some cases the length of detention equaled or exceeded the sentence for the alleged crime. Inadequate staffing in the judicial ministry, judicial inefficiency, and lack of training contributed to lengthy pretrial detention. There were reports of pretrial detainees receiving convictions in absentia, with prison authorities claiming their presence was not necessary, and sometimes detainees were not given sufficient notice and time to arrange transportation.

Amnesty : In August President Ouattara announced an immediate amnesty for prisoners held in connection with the postelectoral crisis, including several former cabinet members, military officers, and Simone Gbagbo, the wife of former president Laurent Gbagbo. The constitution and law provide for an independent judiciary, and although the judiciary generally was independent in ordinary criminal cases, the government often did not respect judicial independence.

Civilian indictments against pro-Ouattara elements for crimes committed during the postelectoral crisis continued to be lacking.

There were also numerous reports of judicial corruption, as bribery or intimidation-influenced rulings. The constitution and law provide for the right to a fair and public trial, but the judiciary sometimes did not enforce this right. Although the law provides for the presumption of innocence and the right to be informed promptly and in detail of the charges with free interpretation as necessary from the moment charged through all appealsthe government did not always respect this requirement.

In the past, assize courts special courts convened as needed to try criminal cases involving major crimes rarely convened. The new procedural penal code created standing criminal tribunal courts to replace the assize courts to address the backlog of cases, although the new courts will not begin hearing cases until The judicial system provides for court-appointed attorneys for those who cannot afford them, although only limited free legal assistance was available; the government had a small legal defense fund to pay members of the bar who agreed to represent the indigent.

Defendants have the right to adequate time and facilities to prepare a defense. Defendants may present their own witnesses or evidence and confront prosecution or plaintiff witnesses. Lack of a witness protection mechanism was a problem.